Proper Handling, Storage and Testing of the Printed Circuit Board

The external elements such as humidity, pressure and temperature can cause damage to a printed circuit board. The human skin is not an exception to that.

The skin is a conductor that one can experience an electric shock if one accidentally touches the PCB with flowing electrical current on its pathways. It is therefore important to avoid skin contact with the board as much as possible, and if inevitable, one should hold it by its edges. Also the eyes and nose are exposed to chemicals’ fumes during the etching process, so goggles and masks should be worn while doing PCB work or project.

pcbIt is not only those who are working on PCB that deserve protection, but also the printed circuit board. A minor defect that escapes ocular inspection and electrical testing can cause PCB deterioration and failure. PCBs can be prone to conductive anodic filament formation. These CAFs can form from visa and laminate cracks that reckless plating and drilling can cause. CAFs, described as copper salt growths, can cause short circuits.

A carefully examined PCB design is necessary to ensure proper spacing and placement of electrical components and to serve as a guide in precise drilling. The resin and glass separation can occur if moisture passes through the glass fibers. The higher temperatures that lead-free soldering requires can be damaging to the substrate, so manufacturers should choose the proper substrate material for an application or product. The glass transition temperature must be considered, too, as when the substrate melts at very high temperatures, it can absorb the contaminants that can cause corrosion of laminates or metals. Delamination can decrease the thermal conductivity of the substrates, making a board failure.

If the PCB’s substrate measurement does not seemingly cover all of the electrical components, the design needs to be modified and improved. The manufacturer may consider a multi-layered PCB instead of the single-layered for a complicated circuitry or an effective power distribution. The more the layers there are, the more costly the PCB is.

The thicker the copper layer is, the more current can flow to it and the higher its thermal conductivity. Double-sided or multiple-layered bare boards are the choice for surface mount technology. But to create visa, manufacturers often use the through-hole technology, too.

Visa are electrical connections between layers. They should be properly coated so that there would be no leaking of ions or corrosion of the copper underneath.

Electro migration, which is the transport of metal ions to unintended pathways, can be a result of improper chemical etching or immersion metal processes. Metals that are embedded on to the copper can cause an unwanted reaction if they are exposed to environmental chemicals or conditions. The mechanical and chemical stress on the board can affect its quality. The metal traces and glass substrate can crack under mechanical stress.

Electrical overstress, characterized as a thermal damage, can occur in poorly designed circuit boards. It can cause high voltage to flow even in insulators, resulting to PCB overheating. High electrical currents that flow to components, especially to ICs, can disrupt with their normal functions. They eventually lose function in repeated or lasting exposure to high voltage.

In addition to proper techniques and processes in PCB fabrication and assembly, its storage matters, too. Keeping the unused bare board in the package can help prevent damage from moisture, which is the primary concern in the substrate’s integrity or intactness. Baking the printed circuit board, which is timely and costly, can be necessary to ensure that no moisture is retained. However, if the temperature is too high, the metals can degrade or they can react with other metals.

There are other storage methods that manufacturers should apply. They can use a desiccant that induces dryness within the moisture-resistant packaging. It should be with no sulfur.

Proper handling, storage, and testing of the printed circuit board should be compliant with PCB manufacturing guidelines. These can ensure that it is of quality.

PCB design is necessary to ensure proper spacing and placement of electrical component and to serve as a guide in precise drilling.

Different Materials Used in Making Badge Lanyards

Badge lanyardsThere are different types of materials used in making badge lanyards. Each type has its own distinct characteristics and value. Manufacturers buy rolls of several materials in bulk. They will cut those into strips and make tons of lanyards. For badge lanyards, the ideal length is 36 inches. The finish product will be at most 18 inches long. Small manufacturers cut the materials manually while large manufacturers use machines for doing that. Man-made materials like polyester and nylon are usually cut into strips with the use of a hot blade. In this way, the heat produced by the knife seals the edges of the material and thus, prevents it from fraying.

Here are some of the most commonly used materials in making badge lanyards.

• Dye sublimated lanyard

In making this lanyard, heat and pressure is utilized. They are responsible for the application of the imprints on the material. The client’s logo is first laid on a piece of paper. Unlike hot stamping and silkscreen printing, the imprint in a dye sublimated lanyard is not directly applied on the material. The imprint is directly applied to a separate material. Afterwards, it will be transferred to the lanyard. In this case, the imprint has a lower tendency of getting scraped and tattered.

White polyester is the initial material used in making the dye sublimated lanyard. The outer color and imprint of the lanyard will be applied all through the sublimation procedure. If you’re looking for high-quality lanyards, then you can go for dye sublimated lanyards. These lanyards are also capable of having back-to-back imprints. Since the process requires a lot of materials, ordering them should be done in large amounts. Usually, the minimum order is about 250 lanyards.

• Polyester Printed Lanyard

This type of lanyard is expensive and has a lower minimum amount of purchase. Usually, manufacturers are making more polyester printed lanyards since they are more popular to customers.

The imprint is applied on the lanyard through silkscreen printing process. This is a similar process used in printing designs on silk-screened mugs and shirts. If you want a clear and detailed output, you must buy polyester printed lanyards.

• Nylon Lanyard

When it comes to quality, nothing can beat nylon lanyards. They are characterized by a smooth and shiny texture. Without any doubt, everyone will be captivated by the attractive and elegant design of nylon lanyards.

The imprints are directly applied on the material through silkscreen printing process. Manufacturers use nylon lanyards for complicated logos and designs. These lanyards are also popular trade items at trade events.

• Woven lanyards

In making these lanyards, the starting material used is polyester. Instead of applying imprints, the design is sewn to the material. Manufacturers apply sewing and patching mechanism in making these lanyards. If you are looking for artistic lanyards, you will be happy and satisfied with woven lanyards.

Woven lanyards are very durable making them last longer. However, one of the shortcomings of this material is that it cannot be used for complex patterns and designs.

• Blank lanyards

Many people love to wear lanyards with plain colors. In this case, a plain cloth is used in making black lanyards. People who buy blank lanyards prioritize the functionality more than the appearance.

Badge lanyards are available in different types and sizes. Aside from determining the type and size, you should also give some attention in choosing the material that will satisfy your personal needs. This is to ensure that you can use the lanyard for a longer time. It is such a waste of money if the lanyard will just easily worn out.

Where did Golf Come From?: A Brief History of the Sport

Much like football and basketball, golf is a sport that has endured the test of time. Despite being over five centuries old, the sport’s timeless appeal continues to fascinate and attract players of different shapes, sizes, and nationalities, and has even been the raison d’être for much-loved sporting equipment brands like Callaway golf.

But when exactly did golf as we know it come into being? In which country did it originate? How did it come to be so popular? And just how different is modern-day golf from its ancient predecessor?

The earliest written record of a golf-like game dates back to the 13th century, somewhere in the Netherlands. The said record described a group of Dutch men playing game with a stick and a leather ball, and were said to be competing with each other to drive the ball into a faraway target with as few strokes of the stick as possible. However, the veracity of this record remains to be confirmed, so official history often ascribes the origins of golf to 15th century Scotland.

GolfGames played with balls and sticks have been enjoyed by humans for centuries, but the concept of using a stick or a club to drive a round object towards a hole or a target is said to be a Scottish invention. The Scots, in addition, are also credited with being the first to play such a game over a total of 18 holes, much like how modern golf is played today.

However, key differences between 15th century golf and 21st century golf include the following :

• Early golfers used a pebble rather than an actual ball, although leather balls stuffed with feathers also came into vogue later on.

• The preferred terrain involved sandy dunes rather than smooth, elevated greens.

• 15th century golf was played by common folk, unlike 21st century golf, which is often associated with rich, powerful, and influential people.

The evolution of 15th century golf into modern-day golf was also very much a work in progress. It wasn’t until the late 18th century when the first set of standardized rules for the game was drawn up in Edinburgh, Scotland. Since the Industrial Revolution came shortly after that, golfing equipment also evolved considerably and the rudimentary sticks and leather balls gave way to the sort of equipment that we would recognize today.

Sports equipment manufacturers (such as Callaway golf) began producing dimpled golf balls (as compared to their smoother forerunners) when it was discovered that scarred or dented balls tended to cover longer distances. As golf balls that could withstand greater force were developed, manufacturers also began working on transforming the rudimentary wooden shafts into clubs that had varying degrees of weight distribution, durability, and bounce angles. The first golf clubs were made of wood, but as industrialists discovered ways to mass produce steel, metal elements were gradually introduced into the traditional golf club design. Eventually, the flexibility, uniformity, and durability offered by steel clubs led to manufacturers favoring metal over wood; hence, majority of golf clubs (even those from Callaway golf) are made entirely out of steel.Visit www.rockbottomgolf.com to get more available options of golf club equipments.

GolfsAs with a lot of trends, royalty and celebrities were largely responsible for making golf as popular and prestigious as it is today. James VI of Scotland was said to bring the sport to England when he was crowned king, and Queen Victoria picked up on the sport on her holiday jaunts to the castle at Balmoral. Golf eventually became a favorite of the aristocracy for its leisurely pace and sophisticated equipment, and rich Americans who vacationed in Europe (particularly in the UK) introduced the sport into high society on the other side of the Atlantic.

By the mid to late 1900’s, there was a boom for constructing golf courses, and golf enthusiasts and industrialists alike (such as the founder of Callaway golf) eventually went into the business of designing, manufacturing, and retailing golf equipment for a market that continues to cultivate a healthy appetite for the ancient sport.

Top Uses Of Custom Rubber Bracelets

One of the most underrated low cost, and stylish mass produced items would be wristbands. Custom rubber bracelets are typically produced in one universal size and worn around the arm. It is usually made of rubber or silicone, and can be very long-lasting. The width may vary, depending on the desired image or design. For the half inch types of wristband, typical design includes texts and small images. More complicated drawings, logos and texts can be accommodated by the ¾ or 1 inch type.

A wristband can serve several functions. Here are just some of the most common uses:
•For schools and universities.

Some students opt to wear wristbands to show school spirit or support. They can either have the name of the school etched on the rubber, or a more intricate logo as a design. This is commonly used during inter-school games and competitions.

•Affiliations.

Custom rubber bracelets tend to be useful for organizations and groups to indicate membership. Instead of the usual IDs, shirts or pins, wristband can be a good option for membership recognition that can be conveniently worn by members.

•Sports.

Another common use of wristbands is during sports games. To show support for a certain team or league, coloured or custom printed wristbands are produced for fans.

•Events.

Silicon WristbandsFor events with a large number of audiences, wristbands can be a good option for event token. Other commonly used event items are lanyards, pins, hats, and caps. Compared to these, wristbands are more durable, and easier to produce. It can also be easily customized to match the theme of the event. Moreover, a wristband can also be an alternative to the typical arm wrap passes during concerts and events. This is more durable and won’t wear off anytime during the event.

•As marketing collateral.

Another use of custom rubber bracelets would be as marketing collateral to promote brands, products or services. It is a good option because unlike distributing flyers and leaflets, customers wouldn’t simply throw wristbands away.

•Team building activities.

For group outdoor activities, wristbands can also be used to classify the team of an individual. Since it’s made or silicone or rubber, the material can definitely withstand strenuous activities.

•Souvenirs.

During birthdays, weddings or other celebration, wristbands can be a good alternative to the usual giveaways. You can easily create your preferred design and have it mass produced. You wouldn’t have to worry about buying your event souvenirs because a wristband can fit both sexes and has a universal size.

•Election paraphernalia.

During national or local elections, supporters of candidates opt to use custom rubber bracelets to show their support or preference. This is usually characterized by the colours represented by each party.

•Personal item.

Above all, a wristband can be used as a personal arm candy. Since custom rubber bracelets can be personalized, anyone can have a tailor-made wristband as a fashion accessory.

The list would still go on, given the versatility and functionality of wristbands. The most important advantage of arm bands compared to other options is the low cost required in producing them. This is why it is an efficient choice for businesses, schools and companies for events to lessen costs and improve profitability.

As a matter of fact, some individuals even choose wristband production as a business because of the product’s high demand and can easily be sold at large quantities. Fortunately, wristbands can now be ordered online through websites of businesses that produces custom rubber. Quotation of total costs can also be requested, for free. Save a digital copy of your design, and have it quoted now for free.

Custom wristbands features the industry’s most advanced wristband designer, allowing you to build, preview and order you custom wristbands all through your computer or mobile device.

Top Six Groups Distributing Custom Challenge Coins to Members

custom challenge coinsMany individuals have seen the glorious appearance of custom challenge coins. These pieces are distributed to various individuals as memorabilia of their services while highlighting team spirit, particularly for military troops.

Although the coins are famous, many people are still unaware of which military branches distribute them to these members. Here are the common authorities that distribute these coins to their members.

Army 

Army is the military branch that serves as offensive and defensive forms on land operations. Individuals serving in this field are often dispatched on the frontlines to protect their camps while helping civilians while on duty.

Armed forces come in two different types. The field army is the main people sent out to borders and do their jobs as military men regularly. On the other hand, army reserves are the troops often deployed as reinforcements where manpower is needed the most like in cases of natural calamities and wars. The armed forces give coins to these military men in recognition of their service for their country.

Navy 

Also known as maritime force, the navy is a military branch in charge of naval operations. In some countries, these maritime troops can be under the naval forces or as an independent organization with specialized services.

Naval troops are in charge of various operations like operating naval military vessels like water tankers. In this site, troop members take on naval aviation and strategic planning. Their tasks also include amphibious operations, which mean they can take charge on land and water whenever necessary. They serve as reinforcements or assigned permanently as waterline border guards. Just like in the army, navy troops take pride of their work and formed brotherhood, leading to the distribution of navy custom challenge coins to their members.

Air force 

Individuals in these troops are in-charge of aerial operations for countries. Military men in the air force are experts in handling aerial tankers used in times of aerial warfare. They are also trained in aerial navigation and strategies that are necessary for providing complete border protection.

In addition to taking part in wars, they also work as reinforcements in cases of calamities where aerial travel is the best way of mobilizing supplies and assistance for civilians and fellow troop members.

Due to the air force’s importance, it received high regards among people, especially when it presents its members’ their skills on public showings. This organization holds regular demonstration showing off their skills on air in operating their aircrafts. Shows include synchronized flying strategies.

Because of their services, air force members receive custom challenge coins to show off their pride on their work and skills. Coins are customized according to their respective troops or units’ characteristics.

Coast guards 

Coast guards are the main troops handling water borders protection from intruders. The naval force may manage their operations, but some countries have them as independent entities. In addition to guarding the borders, they also play significant roles in managing customs and providing additional security. Their functions also include helping the government on water searches in cases of accidents.

Being public servants, coast guards are entitled to receiving these coins to commemorate their services. They have their own custom coins handed to their troop members as memorabilia of their service.

Local public servants 

Local public servants like the police force, firemen and rescuers also started to have their own custom challenge coins given to their members. They have also formed their bond while being of assistance to the public. Through these coins, they highlight brotherhood together with their commitment to serving the public whenever their services re needed.

Corporate offices 

Although they are not part of government servants in a way, corporate offices also began distributing challenge coins to their members. Usually, they are given as rewards for employees who devoted themselves in serving the company for quite some time. Corporate coins can be handed to retiring employees or gifts on promotions on top of their new perks.

Numerous organizations understand the importance of custom challenge coins in boosting morale for their members or employees. Finding and customizing these coins is made easier with experts catering their services to various organizations.

Buying or Selling Property Using Homes for Sale Long Island, New York Websites

There are quite a number of homes for sale Long Island, New York websites, and for the interested home buyer, choosing the right website can prove to be a daunting task. Similarly, if you are planning to sell your Long Island property, you will be hard-pressed to think of ways on how you can make your property stand out. Fortunately, there is also a good number of realty companies and listing services that are available to make things easier and less stressful for interested home buyers and for those who want to sell their properties.

Choosing Your Realty Company or Your Listing Service Provider

Real estateToday, buying or selling property using homes for sale Long Island, New York websites is now easy because many of today’s realty companies and listing service providers have already gone online as well. These websites showcase the different properties that are up for sale as well as the numerous real estate agents that are available to assist you with your property buying or selling needs.

A website also tells a lot about the realty company or the service provider. The layout, content, and the overall look of the website show just how serious a service provider is in catering to the needs of customers. Is the website focused simply on making sales, or does it provide additional information that can help a homeowner? Does it provide a hotline and other contact details? Is the website updated regularly to provide the right information? While it is true that there are many real estate websites available online, not all of them will be able to help you find what you are looking for.

Daniel Gale International Realty

The Daniel Gale Sotheby’s International Realty has one of the most impressive real estate websites. Unlike other websites which immediately show a list of the available properties for sale, the Daniel Gale website welcomes interested homebuyers with enticing pictures of Long Island and the different attractions that it has in store for aspiring homeowners. The changing pictures show a lush golf course, a calming lake, and the perfect sunset in a suburban setting. The website also allows you to search for properties depending on your budget, the county you prefer, the town of your choice, or through the school district that you want for your children. The website is very easy to navigate, and with every page, viewers are provided with the company’s contact number for their own convenience.

Remax Long Island Realty

Homeowners who are looking to sell their properties will greatly appreciate the services of Remax Long Island Real Estate. Their website is simple and straightforward with a profile of one of their best real estate agents available at once. It shows the credentials of the real estate agent and the contact details that interested parties need to know to get in touch with the agent. In addition, some helpful facts and tips about selling your home are also available.

They also show and explain their different service offerings, including short sales, senior services, and even services for inherited homes. Property sellers will also appreciate the free service that lets them know the current market value of their property and the suggested list price. If you want to put up homes for sale Long Island, New York, this real estate service provider is worth considering.

Author Bio:
Li-realestatefinder is a leading website providing the best real estate deals,buying or selling property options,Whether its private, business, purchase, lease or offer we can help to fulfill all real estate needs. We will match you with the best organization and dealer to help you meet your objectives. We are the best viable option for architectural home designs.

How to Show Your Gratitude to Improve Employee Retention

Gratitude goes a long way, especially in helping you to improve your employee retention.

single employeeBeing grateful of your employees hard work actually helps them perform better. When you were still a child, the moment you received a “thank you” from your mom for cleaning your room or helping in tidying up the living room makes you want to do more. You feel good about yourself. This goes truer if she offers to give you a treat. Now that you run your own business, showing your gratitude can also help make the employees feel good about them and improve their work performance.

To help you show how grateful you are for their hard work and effort, here are ways to do it.

1. Commendation

When an employee is commended for a good performance, he feels good and does better at work. If you are managing him, you can commend him for a job well done. As an employer you can also commend him to a certain department head especially if you see the employee’s potential at a certain task and wish to reassign him.

2. Providing benefits

Do you know that the benefits you provide can help with employee retention?

There are some companies that may have certain benefits but one that provides retirement benefits, separate from their social security benefits, is one way to keep them in. That is because they see how their loyalty is valued. Providing certain benefits, and even improving it, make them feel how much their efforts are appreciated.

3. Giving rewards

Rewards can be another way of showing your appreciation and help improve employee retention. For a hard worker, especially one who seems to do work beyond the 9 to 5 shift, it is best to provide them a days off not just when asked. You may also offer them a vacation package which they can use with their family or friends.

Always watch over your employees’ performance. Reward those who have worked hard regardless of their position in your office.

4. Privileges

It can be touching to give your employees gifts during their special day. Of course there are some employers who can’t give every employee a gift. However, there are instances when their office mates do plan a certain surprise for them even in the office. Such employees are those who show their optimism at work and even works well with other employees.

employee retentionAllow them to have this from time to time. This is to show how much you value their performance at work especially how they work well with others. This also gives you a chance to show them you are open and are willing to listen in case they need anything that can help them perform better at work. But if you really want to acknowledge their special day, you can always give them a card.

There are also times where you can provide them with free lunch during group meetings, especially the long ones. This will help them brainstorm more effectively and see they are well taken care of.

5. Improve their work area

One way to show your appreciation for their work is by making sure their area can help them work effectively. You can provide better lighting, more comfortable chairs, more efficient working tables, and even a coffee maker inside the office.

Showing how grateful you are can help improve your employee retention rate. This makes them feel good and well taken care of that they are happy to work for you and for the success of the company. Never belittle the power of what a “thank you” means to them.